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Alloy Steel & Elements


An alloy is a substance consisting of 2 or more chemical elements with one of them being a metal thus resulting in desire metallic properties. Steel is in alloy of iron and carbon.

Functions of main alloying elements :

Elements Main functions of these elements
Carbon (C) Directly influences the hardness and strength of the steel, decreases toughness.
Chromium (Cr) Improves Hardenability, high temperature strength, wear resistance and even Corrosion resistance (Cr>14%)
Cobalt (Co) Improves retention of hardness at high temperatures.
Molybdenum (Mo) Increases yield point and strength, improves Hardenability and wear resistance.
Manganese Lowers effects of iron sulphides, increase hardenability, wear resistance.
Nickel (Ni) Increases toughness at lower temperatures, slow the corrosion process.
Tungston (W) Improves toughness, grainstructure, high temperature strength, wear resistance, ect.
Vanadium (V) Increases wear resistance, high temperature strength, retention of hardness etc.
Silicon (Si) It is a deoxidizing agent. Increases strength and wear resistance.

It is of importance that certain elements are as low as possible. Elements like Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulphur create defects inside & also reduce the mechanical properties of steel.

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